Alternative Science & Technology Research Organisation
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December 2000 Newsletter
Was this a hot air engine or an internal
A letter from Sir George Cayley to the editor of Nicholsons Journal .
The letter was dated dated September 25 1807.
I observed in your last vol page 368 that some experiments have been lately made in France upon air, expanded by heat, applied as a first mover for mechanical purposes. This idea, as you justly remark, is by no means new in this country; yet I have not yet heard that any successful experiments have been made, exclusively upon this principle, in England, though you hint that something promising has been accomplished relative to it.
The subject is of much importance as the steam engine has hitherto proved too weighty and cumbrous for most purposes of locomotion; whereas the expansion of air seems calculated to supply a mover free from these defects. Under this impression I send to you a sketch of an engine I projected upon this principle several years ago; it was made on a considerable scale at Newcastle, though I must confess without success in the result, which I attributed to the imperfect manner in which it was executed, the cylinders being made of sheet copper and so irregular, as not to be rendered tolerably air-tight by any packing of the piston. I think that there can be no doubt that the scheme is practicable in some way or other; and I conceive that the form of the engine here sketched will be the basis of whatever experience may prove to perfection in the apparatus of the air engine.
A and B, are two cylinders, placed one above the other; C and D, their respective pistons connected by one rod. F is a cylinder, containing a fire in a vessel within a vessel within it in such a manner, that any air passing between the upper and lower portions of it must go through the fire. This vessel also contains a long cylinder, open at the bottom, and directly over the centre of the fire, for the purpose of holding coke or other fuel. This cylinder is covered at the top, and packed air-tight when it has served the purpose of permitting the fire to be kindled through it: and has been filled with fuel.
The cylinder B is fitted up to answer the purpose of a double stroke forcing pump, or bellows, to drive the air into the upper portion of vessel F, from whence it passes downward through the fire for the purpose of consuming the smoke (the fresh fuel being supplied from the reservoir above) in its passage through the more completely ignited cinders below. In this act the air is expanded; and by means of pipes from the lower portion of F, it is conveyed alternately above and below the piston of the cylinder A. In each pipe is fixed a stop cock or valve, so constructed as to open a passage to the external air, when it shuts the connection with the fire vessel. These cocks are worked by a plug frame.
From this construction it will appear evident that whatever expansion the air receives its pressure will operate alike upon the piston of the bellows and of the receiver; and that always in opposition to each other; hence the power of the stroke will be in proportion to the excess of the area of the receiving piston, over that of the feeding one, multiplied by the expansive force of the contained air, and by the length of the movement.
If when the engine is well constructed, the expansion of the air in keeping up the fire be not found sufficiently sensible, still the form of the engine is such as to admit of either inflammable gas, oil of tar, or some other inflammable matters, being injected each stroke upon the fire; so that all the heat generated by the united combustion may operate without waste; perhaps even a light sprinkling of water, either upon, or round the sides of the fire, might answer the purpose. It scarcely need be observed, that a tube connected with a small forcing pump are the only things required for producing these effects.
I remain Sir,
Your obedient Servant,
Is this a 1999 version of Sir George Cayley's 1807 device?
|While searching the internet about a year
ago I found a site that described a gas turbine that used
wood as fuel. The machine used turbocharger (from a truck
if I remember correctly) the construction was roughly as
in the diagram to the left. No attempts were made to
harness the output; it might be possible to run another
turbine to recover some energy. The pressure vessel
looked like it was about 200 litres in volume; a site
glass was provided for observing the fire.
circuit redraw; it's wise to place a 470nF capacitor across the ic's supply pins (8 & 4) to stop unwanted instability. For safety sake, use only 3 small 9 volt batteries to power this device.
For those of you that need to remember pi to the first 14 decimal places (3.14159265358979) here is a good memory aid. "How I want a drink, alcoholic of course, after the heavy lectures involving quantum mechanics". Each word is replaced by the number of its letters.
Can you identify the
shapes to the left?
For those of you using Tesla Technology here is an extract from Claytons Electrotherapy and Actinotherapy by P.M. Scott (1958).
THE MODERN SPARK GAP. This usually consists
of four narrow gaps each 14 millimetre across, arranged in
series, the total gap being 1 millimetre (Fig. 138). The gaps are
faced with flat tungsten discs. Tungsten is
used because it is a hard metal with a high melting point, and so
is not easily pitted by the sparks. The gaps must be cooled to
prevent arcing. If this occurred the condenser would not charge
up to the correct difference of potential, since with an arc the
resistance falls considerably. Cooling is obtained by splitting
the gap into four smaller gaps and fixing radiator plates between
the gaps. Also, by using flat tungsten surfaces, the sparks are
spread over a wider area, and so produce less heat. These
tungsten gaps may be open. But sometimes a mica washer (a disc of
mica with a hole in the centre for the sparks) is clamped between
the surfaces of each gap. This fixes the width of the gap, and it
is less likely to alter with the vibration caused by the sparks
than with the open gap. Also, the spark gap being enclosed, the
machine will be more silent in operation..
CARE OF SPARK GAPS. The tungsten spark gaps require little attention. Occasionally the gaps become too wide and need adjusting. When this occurs, either there is no sparking across the gaps after switching on, or the current is irregular. If the gaps become too hot from prolonged use of the machine, the resistance falls, the condenser discharges at a lower EMF, and the current output is reduced.
This is the Time of the Year to talk about the North Pole!
The Earth's Poles.
We know that opposite poles attract, and that therefore the attractive pole near the earth's north geographical pole must be of a polarity opposite to that of the north-seeking pole of the magnet. The statement in this form sounds reasonable. But to-day we have to say: "The magnetic pole near the earth's geographical north pole is a south pole; and the magnetic pole near the earth's geographical south pole is a north pole", which does not sound particularly sensible, but is, all the same, a statement of fact in the language of to-day.
The meeting started at 8.85 pm and was opened with a welcome to all by Rodger. Apologies were accepted from Colin and Percy.
Athol read the minutes from the October 13 meeting. They were moved by Peter and seconded by Brian. Two letters were received as correspondence in. One was from Ken on an orgone egg device that electrolysed H2 and O2 without power. This was an article from the Webb. The second letter was from Bruce to the committee stating (briefly) that he was concerned that the group was getting off track and getting into New Age and UFO type things that were covered by other local groups. He pointed out the original aim of ASTRO was to research and develop a water fuel system for cars.
moved a motion that (in essence) the group reinstate
a "meeting protocol" of subjects on inventors,
experimenters and technical knowledge of all alternative energy
matters. This was debated and a consensus modified the motion to
" be primarily" on the above motion. This was to allow
important information on health and other issues to get a "look
in" without taking over the show. This modified motion was
moved and accepted..
The formal meeting was closed at 9.05 and the group was opened up to general discussion.
Andrew told of his submitting his invention that achieved 100 miles/gallon, to the Transport Department for evaluation, four years ago. This involved a $10,000.00 grant to test. Basically it worked, so why did it not get any further. It needed further research and development, like any foundling technology, but there really only seems to be lip service to any energy saving inventions.
Visitor related a story about his brother who invented a water injection system whilst he was in prison. It achieved 70mpg and was successfully fitted to seven prison vehicles. His brother had a heart attack in prison and died (at 30 years old) and that was the last anyone heard of his invention or the seven fitted out cars.
Michael stated that if your car is running on an alternative fuel, it is supposed to be registered as an experimental vehicle. (There were murmurs that this left the inventor in an awkward position if there were any other parties with vested interests).
Andrew said there was a University of Wellington book on "Suppressed Inventions" and suggested that we should get in touch with the author. He also mentioned that a member of our group was a consulting engineer and that he had had him test his water unit and that it had a 95% bacterial kill rate on the first pass.
Nina produced an overseas news article from Austria, reported in "KRONE" 14th Sept. 2000. This article showed "Johann Grander" receiving the " Silver Honourary Award by the Russian Academy of the Sciences". This is a high award and this was one of the justifications " Through Grander's Method it becomes possible, to strengthen the energy and information characteristics of the water and thereby making it more valuable." " The formula is actually called H2O, but water isn't equal water" Grander's electromagnetic treatment of water has been researched, for a period of three years at the Russian Academy of Sciences, and proven that it actually lowers radioactivity. It apparently is being used to repatriate the Chernobyl radioactive problem.
Andrew said that his "EKOVORTEK" unit was similar in effect to Grander's unit and that he had three different configurations for three different uses.
Damien demonstrated an "AURA" comb that he had made. It was based on the "Kryon Book 8" healing of the aether field of the body. He had used a $2.00 Cheap as Chips brush with metal combs which he had painstakingly wired up. He then plugged it into a walkman an demonstrated the unit by brushing the left and right sides of the body to the ground. Volunteers were used to show the effects.
Pat then demonstrated some healing techniques using an ordinary plastic comb, plus pressure points and massage. Robert volunteered and to all of our amazement his black eye-rings went down and receded within a minute or so, as his kidneys and liver were coaxed into function. Other amazing demonstrations followed.
Vic mentioned an article in NEXUS Magazine on root canals.
Andrew mentioned that Pat also did a lot on work on race horses.
Roger mentioned a last appearance by Peter Bennett the organic gardening genius at Woodhouse giving a demo on composting. He apparently is retiring and moving to Queensland.
Rodger mentioned that we should not forget to bring in any inventions or demonstrations next month there are handsome prises for the best three to be voted on by the group. He thanked everyone and invited us all to supper.
The Next Meeting is on the 8th of December. Bring along some Christmas fare!
|Ken Kranz (Newsletter and Web Page)
Phone 08 83872845
your Christmas and New Year be enjoyable and rewarding.