News in PHYSICS - New Element discovered
A major research institution recently announced the discovery
of the heaviest element yet known to science.
This new element tentatively has been named "Corporatium".
Corporatium has 1 neutron, 12 assistant neutrons, 75 deputy neutrons, and 111 assistant deputy neutrons, giving it an atomic mass of 312.
These 312 particles are held together by a force called morons, which are surrounded by vast quantities of lepton-like particles called peons.
Since Corporatium has no electrons, it is inert.
However, it can be detected as it impedes every reaction with which it comes into contact.
A minute amount of Corporatium causes one reaction to take over 4 days to complete when it would normally take less than a second.
Corporatium has a normal half-life of 3 years; it does not decay but instead undergoes a reorganization, in which a portion of the assistant neutrons and deputy neutrons and assistant deputy neutrons exchange places.
In fact, Corporatium's mass will actually increase over time, since
each reorganization causes some morons to become neutrons forming isodopes.
This characteristic of moron-promotion leads some scientists to speculate that Corporatium is formed whenever morons reach a certain quantity in concentration.
This hypothetical quantity is referred to as "Critical
You will know it when you see it...
| I was asked at the last
meeting to draw up a simple motor speed control circuit so here it is.
1. It is assumed the input is from a mains transformer via a suitably rated low voltage winding, the d.c. voltage across C1 will be about 1.414 times the a.c. input voltage.
eg: 10 volts a.c. will give about 14 volts d.c. across C1.
20 volts a.c. will give about 28 volts d.c. across C1.
24 volts a.c. will give about 33 volts d.c. across C1.
27 volts a.c. will give about 38 volts d.c. across C1.
2. The output current allowable will depend on the input voltage, if the 2N3055 is on a good heatsink the following will be a guide.
38 Volts input the maximum current allowable will be 3.5 amps
30 Volts input the maximum current allowable will be 4 amps
20 Volts input the maximum current allowable will be 5.5 amps
3. No current limiting has been provides to keep the circuit simple enough to construct without a circuit board.
4. The input voltage should be 6 volts above the maximum expected output voltage.
Click here for a pdf of the circuit diagram.
Below is an extract from
Frequently asked questions about the Solar Tower project
Who is EnviroMission?
Melbourne based EnviroMission is a newly formed green energy public company that listed on the ASX on August 6, 2001.
The company owns an exclusive licence to innovative Solar Tower technology. We aim to establish our first 200MW solar thermal power station using this technology in Australia by September 2005.
What is the Solar Mission Project?
The Solar Mission Project is EnviroMission’s program to establish solar thermal energy generation as a commercial alternative in the Australian energy market.
The Solar Mission will adapt the unique German designed Solar Tower technology to Australian conditions.
What is Solar Tower Technology?
Solar Tower technology is not simply solar energy.
Solar Tower technology is created when the sun’s radiation is used to heat a large body of air, which is then forced by the laws of physics (hot air rises) to move as a hot wind through large turbines to generate electricity.
A solar thermal power station using Solar Tower technology will create the conditions to cause hot wind to flow continuously through its turbines to generate enough electricity to power about 200,000 homes.
What will a Solar Tower power station look like?
The power station will be based on German designed Solar Tower technology.
It will look like an enormous greenhouse canopy with a very tall hollow ventilation Tower located at its centre (see artist’s’ impression elsewhere).
The sun’s radiation will be collected and trapped under the transparent canopy, creating a massive force of air heated to around 35°C greater than the ambient temperature.
The laws of physics will make this air move at 15 metres per second towards the cold air at the top of the Tower located in centre of the canopy.
The powerful updraft will force the rising air to pass through large turbines positioned at the base of the Tower.
The movement of the hot wind through the turbines will generate up to 200MW of clean, emission free electricity – enough electricity for 200,000 typical Australian homes.
What materials will be used?
The solar thermal power station will be composed of three major components: the solar collector, Solar Tower and turbines.
The large solar collector canopy will be constructed from a transparent material (maybe glass, but more likely to be a type of plastic to save weight) with heat enhancing properties.
The Tower will be constructed from reinforced high strength concrete.
The large-scale turbines will be purpose designed and constructed from lightweight alloy materials like those used in aircraft manufacture.
How many hours in a day will it generate electricity?
EnviroMission’s solar thermal power station will generate electricity 24-hours a day.
The power station will be at its most efficient on hot days when energy is most needed and peak prices are paid for electricity.
Innovative design will enable the power station to store heat and continue to generate energy during the night.
This special feature enhances the commercial viability of the power station and gives the project a consistent competitive advantage over other forms of renewable energy generation.
What factors determined the Tapio Station site?
EnviroMission’s commercial optimisation study took several issues into consideration before it chose Tapio Station as the preferred site for the first power station. These factors include:
Can it be built?
A technical review report prepared by Sinclair Knight Merz, one of Australia’s leading engineering specialists, independently agree the proposed solar thermal power station’s design concepts and construction methods are well proven and it can be built in Australia.
A 50kW prototype Solar Tower plant was constructed and successfully operated in Manzanares, Spain, with involvement of the designer Professor Jörg Schlaich, and the Spanish Government in 1982.
The prototype operated for seven years and conclusively proved the technology works. The data obtained from this prototype has provided the basis for a scaled up 200MW generation plant.
Why wasn’t it built earlier?
For more than 100 years it has always been cheap and simple to dig up and burn coal to produce electricity.
However, enormous shifts in community values across the world and growing concern about the environment, global warming and pollution over the last 20 years has led to a demand for methods to generate renewable, clean green energy.
In Australia, increased community concern about our over reliance on coal based ‘black’ energy and its negative impact on our environment is driving political change.
There is now a legislated market for clean, green renewable energy. This development has opened the way for investment in new approaches to green energy generation.
New materials and construction methods have been developed to the point where Solar Tower technology can now be applied in an economically viable way.
Is Solar Tower Power Competitive?
The selling price of Solar Tower renewable energy is based on the average peak pool electricity price paid to generators plus an additional renewable energy credit incentive paid by retailers.
This makes it as competitive as ‘black’ energy and competitive with other renewable generators.
What is the Green Energy Market?
Over the past 10 years, control of greenhouse gas emissions has become an issue of major international concern because escalating levels of CO2 are now proven to be a direct cause of global warming.
Worldwide environmental performance of energy industries, particularly the electricity sector, has been subject to close examination as they are major contributors to the production of CO2 greenhouse gases.
In 1997, the Federal Government mandated through legislation that 9500GWh of Australia’s electricity supply must come from clean, green renewable sources by 2010.
The government’s commitment to green energy generation is part of a national strategy to meet 1996 Kyoto obligations to reduce CO2 emissions.
Most of Australia’s electricity needs are met today by black and brown coal fired power stations, which account for more than 35% of our nation’s greenhouse gas emissions.
Less than 10% of all electricity generated in Australia is generated from alternative, renewable, clean energy sources.
Each EnviroMission 200MW solar thermal power station will abate over 900,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide from entering the environment annually.
Test your computer security go to http://grc.com
Below is an example of a scan of my computer (from the above site).
Demystifying Your System's Ports
This enhanced Port Probe facility is just the beginning.
I have some exciting "port awareness" innovations planned for the near future. So please be sure to add yourself to our eMail system so I can keep you in the loop and apprised of new developments.
(I only send a few pieces of eMail per year, and you can easily remove yourself from our eMail system at any time, so you need not worry about receiving a flood of self-serving commercial eMail from me. That will never happen.)
Port Status Descriptions:
If all of the tested ports were shown to have stealth status, then for all intents and purposes your computer doesn't exist to scanners on the Internet!
It means that either your computer is turned off or disconnected from the Net (which seems unlikely since you must be using it right now!) or an effective stealth firewall is blocking all unauthorized external contact with your computer. This means that it is completely opaque to random scans and direct assault. Even if this machine had previously been scanned and logged by a would-be intruder, a methodical return to this IP address will lead any attacker to believe that your machine is turned off, disconnected, or no longer exists. You couldn't ask for anything better.
There's one additional benefit: scanners are actually hurt by probing this machine! You may have noticed how slowly the probing proceeded. This was caused by your firewall! It was required, since your firewall is discarding the connection-attempt messages sent to your ports. A non-firewalled PC responds immediately that a connection is either refused or accepted, telling a scanner that it's found a live one ... and allowing it to get on with its scanning. But your firewall is acting like a black hole for TCP/IP packets! This means that it's necessary for a scanner to sit around and wait for the maximum round-trip time possible - across the entire Net, into your machine, and back again - before it can safely conclude that there's no computer at the other end. That's very cool.
NOTE: If your system did NOT show up as Stealth! but you wish that it could, you'll need to use one of the inexpensive (or FREE in the case of ZoneAlarm 2!) personal firewalls I've discovered. I will also be creating my own firewall which you can monitor and be informed of, by adding yourself to my eMailing System. But in the meantime . . . I'd advise you not to wait! (Especially since ZoneAlarm 2 is completely FREE for individual use!)
"Closed" is the best you can hope for without a stealth firewall in place.
Anyone scanning past your IP address will immediately detect your PC, but "closed" ports will quickly refuse connection attempts. Your computer might still be crashed or compromised through a number of known TCP/IP stack vulnerabilities. Also, since it's much faster for a scanner to re-scan a machine that's known to exist, the presence of your machine might be logged for further scrutiny at a later time - for example, when a new TCP/IP stack vulnerability is discovered.
You should stay current with updates from your operating system vendor since new "exploits" are being continually discovered and they are first applied upon known-to-exist machines . . . like this one!
AS NOTED ABOVE: If your system did NOT show up as Stealth! but you wish that it could, you will need to use one of the inexpensive personal firewalls I've discovered. If your system's security is a concern (as I'm afraid it needs to be in this day and age), I would advise you not to wait!
If one or more of your ports are shown as OPEN! then one of the following two situations must be true:
You have servers running on those open ports:
If your system is running Internet servers on the ports shown as OPEN, you should stay current with PC industry security bulletins. New security vulnerabilities are being found continually. When crackers learn of a new vulnerability, they quickly grab their scanner logs to search for systems that have been scanned in the past and are of the known-to-be-vulnerable type. This allows them to be attacking logged systems within moments of learning of a newly located security hole. It is therefore important for you to respond to any news of new vulnerabilities in your systems as quickly as possible. The crackers are hoping you'll take your time.
You DO NOT have servers running on those open ports:
If you are not actively offering Internet services through the ports shown as OPEN, something is very wrong with your system:
t is actively advertising its presence on the Internet and
soliciting the attention of ALL PASSING PORT SCANNERS!
Logs of open ports are maintained by crackers and used as points of attack.
Either a server has been started without your knowledge - as is done by Trojan horse programs like Back Orifice - or you may be running one of the many "Evil Port Monitors" which has altered your system's "open port profile" in order to monitor TCP/IP connections. Evil Port Monitors will tell you that a passing scanner has just successfully probed into your system . . . but the problem (for you) is that it was a successful scan probe and the existence of your system's wide open ports will have been noticed and logged!
Your system may be monitored for Internet attacks without alerting crackers to your presence by using a real personal firewall product - instead of one of the many evil port monitors. For the best monitoring and protection I recommend ZoneLab's FREE firewall: ZoneAlarm 2.x. (See the "Personal Firewalls" page for more information.)
ASTRO MEETING 11th APRIL 2003
The meeting started at 8.10pm with a welcome from Ashley. There were apologies from Robert and Mathew. There was no Guest speaker for the night so items of interest were asked for from the members.
Ken started the ball rolling with a discussion on a "Step Butt" transformer, which is far superior to E & I or Toroid transformers. They are available from AEM Cores Adelaide.
Ken also discussed an Orgone meter that uses the principle that if you pass High Frequency through a capacitor it changes the current flowing through it. Ken also briefly mentioned a list of books available from Borderland Sciences on free energy.
Peter mentioned that his late father in-law used to tell the story of curing Dengue Fever when he was in the Australian Army Transport in northern Australia, during the Second World War. He used to say that the troops knew that if they went to the medics with Dengue fever, they knew that their likelyhood of recovery was slim. Instead, they used to grab hold of the spark plug
leads of the petrol engine trucks and hang on as long as possible. Peter said that this was the same as Beck, Rife and Lahkoskvy in that all effectively killed viruses with electricity. He hinted that the "Powers-to be" knew about Electro Medicine and that they chose to keep it suppressed in the interest of world population control.
Jan raised the issue of using a 3xphase motor as a generator. Ken said that it could be
done with capacitors bridging out the phases.
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Phone 08 83872845
|DISCLAIMER: All information given in this newsletter is for educational purposes only. No claims are made on or for the validity or correctness of the material provided. ASTRO S.A. Incorporated accepts no responsibility for any mishaps or accidents incurred by any persons utilising this information.|